Don't spray people, this is my own look. The common sense inside is relatively basic. (However, please indicate the source of the reprint, after all, collecting and sorting information is also a very difficult thing)
1, whipped cream ~ alias: cream, whipped cream (cream may contain sugar, but the cream must not contain sugar, add it when you use it) ⭐️ Note that some Taiwanese books put butter (also from 'full fat' Milk is processed, mainly based on whipped cream, refined and fermented. It contains about 90% fat, which is a light yellow solid oil, fat!) Also known as 'cream', but its English corresponding butter The name of the whipping cream must have the words 'light, thin...' at the beginning, and the English corresponds to cream. Pay attention to the distinction.淡 The light cream used for “selling, scenting flowers” is called Whipping Cream, which is more classified than cream, such as cooking, non-fatable whipping cream. 2, its traits: milky white / yellowish thick liquid liquid / or semi-solid, with a unique milk flavor. 3, the main raw materials: full-fat fresh milk (in principle, it can also be 'goat milk') (specifically, animal fresh cream) 4, the basic process: is the 'physical process' physical separation (centrifugation, mixing, stratification) quality The light milk fat ball floats on the upper layer and becomes 'cream', purified and concentrated. (The fresh milk is separated into: cream and skim milk?) 5-1. Main components: water (about 60%), animal cream-cream (about 40%), oil-in-water state. (From milk, no 'palm oil... vegetable oil ingredients' fat content 30% ~ 36%, the higher the milk fat content ~ the easier to send. Note: in the skim cream, the fat content is 8% ~ 15%. But, skim cream is What a ghost?! 5-2, additives: finished cream is often added: milk protein (whey protein, casein), stabilizer (carrageenan), emulsifier ... to help the cream to send. 6, nutritional value: nutrition High value, rich in vitamins A, D, milk fat, various fatty acids (saturated fatty acids: monounsaturated fatty acids: polyunsaturated fatty acids ~ 20:9:1), cholesterol, sodium, potassium?, copper?... Digestion and absorption rate of 95%. But high fat and high heat, eat more easy to fat. Comprehensive nutrition (nutrient richness): whole milk > whipped cream > butter. (protein, lactose, minerals, calcium, phosphorus... full More in fat milk) 7, other classification of cream (depending on milk fat content): See Knowledge Extension 1 (Category 1, Classification 2) 8, Plant Cream / Margarine: Contains palm oil, coconut oil... 'Hydrogenated vegetable oil' Instead of milk fat, including A large number of trans fatty acids can not be digested and metabolized, which is extremely harmful to the cardiovascular system. (Butter also has 'animal butter / margarine', the latter is also unhealthy) 9. Storage of whipping cream: refrigerated. Frozen is easy to frostbite, water oil appears Separation!
Whipped cream 'processing technology' supplements
Whipped cream 'processing technology' supplement
Light cream: 'nutrition composition' analysis
Light cream: 'nutrition composition' analysis
Animal fresh cream: classification one, (according to milk fat content)
The above two pictures are from Baidu Library: 'Puff Pastry and Fresh Cream' to expand knowledge, ⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️ [animal whipped cream] classification one, (depending on milk fat content): 1, Half and Half Cream Half fat cream (milk content: 12% up and down) for coffee and low fat baked goods. 2, Light Cream / Single Cream whipped cream (fat content 18% ~ 30%, usually about 20%) can not be sent. 3, Whipping Cream with whipping cream / whipped cream (milk content: 30% ~ 36%) is widely used in the baking field. 4, Heavy Cream thick cream / heavy cream (fat content: 36% ~ 40%) more concentrated with cream, thick whipped cream, better performance, the cream is more stable. It is more common abroad. 5, Double Cream double cream (milk content: 48%) English whipped cream or thick cream. Note that it is easy to pass too much and the texture is very thick. 6, Cloted Cream Cream / Devonshire cream (milk content 55% ~ 60%) production process is different from ordinary cream. The British used to enjoy this cream with the buns. (⭐️ text part: combined with the article ~ Sina blog 'answer questions: different classification of Cream' Jenny)
[Animal fresh cream] Classification 2, according to 'processing technology ... different' 1, ???? ???? ???? ???? [sour cream] Sour Cream is 'fermented cream', and 'milk' fermented into 'yoghurt' principle. The production process has three kinds of 1-1, cream + ordinary yogurt ➡️ fermentation. 1-2, cream + fermentation bacteria powder fermentation. 1-3, cream + lemon juice ➡️ not regular, only an alternative, there will be sour. 2, skim cream? ?
Expand the knowledge 2, whipped cream, butter, cheese / cheese, milk (basic situation) ... District analysis: ???? ???? ???? ???? Cream: cream part (described above)
???? ???? ???? ???? Butter: Butter 1, alias: cream, butter oil. (Some books are called 'tallow'; but this butter is not a butter, pay attention to the difference between 'oil/bovine body fat') butter is also called 'cream' because it is called cream in the national standard (refer to GB 5415-1999) and only called butter (not called cream / whipping cream) butter is a common folk name. English is butter (non-cream) 2, butter traits: light yellow, solid, oil (is grease!) has a strong milk flavor. 28 degrees Celsius, it becomes very soft - can be sent. At 34 degrees Celsius, it dissolves into a liquid and can no longer be sent. 3, the main raw materials: full fat fresh milk (also 'goat milk') (specifically, natural butter / animal butter) 4, the basic process: further centrifugal stirring of milk / whipped cream, vigorously stirred with a centrifuge, so that 'milk The protein membrane of the fat globule ruptures and the milk fat flows out of the globule. After losing protein protection, the fat and water are separated, and they slowly rise and float together to become pale yellow. At this time, 'physically separate' the upper layer of fat, add salt and squeeze to remove water, it becomes a daily edible butter, the process is also called 'white off'. There are two production processes: 4-1, whipped cream - not fermented ➡️ ordinary butter + buttermilk (ordinary cream ???? ordinary butter?) 4, 2, whipped cream - fermented ➡️ fermented butter + buttermilk (sour cream ???? fermentation Butter?) Home operation: whipping cream - excessive watering occurs. Water and oil separation occurs. Is the upper layer being the initial butter/lower Buttermilk? The whipped cream is fermented or not, the rest is called buttermilk? Buttermilk is buttermilk, buttermilk? 5, the main ingredients: fat 90%, water < 10%, other substances < 5%, water-in-oil. Skim butter fat 41% to 65%. But what about skim butter? 6. Nutritional value: The fat-soluble nutrients in milk are all present in milk fat, so the butter contains very high vitamin A (much higher than the content of whipped cream, about 750:340. An important source of supplemental vitamin A), also Rich in vitamin D (far less than vitamin A), a small amount of vitamin K, carotene (butter yellow source); rich in a variety of fatty acids (saturated fatty acids: monounsaturated fatty acids: polyunsaturated fatty acids 263: 118: 1), rich Cholesterol (cardiovascular disease, high blood lipids patients eat less) high calorie (far higher than chocolate) high fat, moderate consumption. In addition to salty butter rich in sodium, the 'minerals' such as calcium in butter are not high. The 'protein' content is not high. 'Lactose' is low in content and suitable for lactose intolerance. Comprehensive nutrition: whole milk > cream > butter 7, butter classification: 7-1, according to traits: anhydrous butter, acid butter. 7-2, according to the process: sweet butter, raw butter. Ordinary light butter, fermented butter. 7-3, according to the taste: 8, natural butter VS margarine (fat)
At 28 degrees Celsius +: soften, can be sent. At 34 degrees Celsius +: melt, can't be sent. This is quite critical in making butter biscuits and needs to be softened rather than melted.
According to 1 classification: water content. Pay attention to a new knowledge: [waterless butter] ClarifiedButter, also known as AMF / waterless cream / pure butter. Cream content: about 99.9%, it is not easy to melt at room temperature.
According to 2 classification: processing technology
According to 3 categories: different tastes
???? ???? ???? ???? ordinary butter (no fermentation) VS fermented butter
Ordinary butter (no fermentation) VS fermented butter Second, ✅ quality: no big difference! Ordinary butter: light cream (not fermented), directly refined. Fermented butter: whipped cream (fermented first), then refined. ✅ flavor: the main difference. Fermented Butter ~ There is a rich, sour after fermentation.
Ordinary butter (no fermentation) VS fermented butter three, [how to distinguish: ordinary butter / fermented butter] 1, see product ingredients table: 1-1, ordinary butter: pasteurized cream, milk 1-2, fermented butter: Pap Disinfecting cream, milk...+(fermentation powder/yeast) 2, seeing the place of origin - roughly inferred: 2-1, French-based salt-free butter ~ mostly fermented butter (such as President, Philharmonic) 2-2, other places ~ ordinary butter;
???? ???? ???? ???? Buttermilk buttermilk, buttermilk 1, name: buttermilk, buttermilk, buttermilk 2, buttermilk traits: thick, acidic, so-sour sour-sour taste (similar to cheese) Note that it is not yogurt! 3, the main raw materials: full-fat cream (what about skim cream?) 4, the production process: full-fat cream, after extracting butter, the remaining products. Add the strain and pass the 'fermentation'. (Yes ~ first cream fermentation, then extract / extract first, then ferment?) Note that it is not yogurt! 5, the composition characteristics: fat content
Buttermilk buttermilk / buttermilk
Buttermilk buttermilk / buttermilk III.
Buttermilk buttermilk / buttermilk
Buttermilk buttermilk / buttermilk
???? ???? ???? ???? Cheese: cheese 1, alias: (meaning) cheese, cheese, (transliteration) cheese, cheese, cheese ... 2, cheese traits: smelly, rich taste, solid (dry) dairy products 3, the main raw materials: fresh milk, lactic acid bacteria, curd, salt. (Also 'goat milk') (specifically, natural cheese) does not seem to be 'full fat milk' 4, the basic process: milk - milk products fermented through the [fermentation process]. [concentration process] to whey / most of water 5-1, main components: lactic acid bacteria (finished product is higher than yogurt), 5-2, additives: curd (this is a natural ingredient / additive?) 6, nutritional value : Nutritional value is very rich. Rich in protein (because of removing whey, resulting in less whey protein, lower biological value than whole milk protein. In addition, protein in cheese is broken down into small molecules, so di digestibility is extremely high) Essential amino acids: high in lactose: very low in content Suitable for lactose intolerance, diabetic patients... edible. Fat-lipids (rich saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids) are also high in calories - very low (no harm to cardiovascular disease), minerals such as calcium (high in content, natural cheese ~ is an important food for calcium supplementation) And these calcium are easily absorbed. In addition, calcium teeth, eating cheese to inhibit caries occurs) is also rich in phosphorus, sodium (the cheese has salt, so pay attention to sodium intake, sodium is related to some high blood pressure diseases) potassium , magnesium, iron, zinc ... overall contains a high ~ fat-soluble vitamins; water-soluble vitamins are rare. Rich in fat-soluble carotene, vitamin A, vitamin D, water-soluble - vitamin B family ... vitamin C almost no. Others such as: folic acid, biotin... Lactic acid bacteria have health care functions, maintain a stable balance of normal flora in the intestine, prevent constipation and diarrhea; promote metabolism and enhance vitality. Generally speaking, it is concentrated + fermented milk, the king of 'milk gold' milk, pure natural food, suitable for all ages, great! But its calories and fats are very high, and it is eaten in moderation! 7-1, cheese classification: raw cheese, cooked cheese. Fresh cheese, semi-soft cheese, soft cheese, semi-hard cheese, hard cheese 7-2, cheese-rich variety: listed later. 8, re-made cheese: post-processing. More additives, low nutritional value.
Cheese name, ingredients
Cheese: rich in nutritional value
Cheese: protein digestibility - extremely high
In cheese: less whey protein than whey. More casein: a protein that is insoluble in water. Essential amino acid: high content
In cheese: less whey ~ less lactose (most 'lactose' is discharged with whey). ????Lactose intolerance, diabetic patients... suitable for consumption
Cheese: Less whey ~ less water-soluble vitamins. Contains more ~ fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin C content is extremely low
Raw cheese practice
The practice of cooked cheese: the process of “hardening and drying” is more than raw cheese. Here is a supplement: a kitchen friend raised the objection that the biggest difference between raw cheese and cooked cheese is that the former does not heat, the latter has more heating process. However, after repeated thoughts and comparisons, I felt that it was the simple sentence above that cooked cheese had more 'hardening and drying' than raw cheese, rather than having the problem of 'heating'. Why do you say that? (Please refer to the text on the pictures in steps 39 and 41 for details) The general idea is: ???? cheese has a concept of [mature period], this is the basic knowledge! (Knocking on the blackboard) ???? Fresh cheese has no maturity and is now eaten; ???? soft cheese has a mature period, and it must be put in a certain environment (such as constant temperature and humidity) for a period of time to eat. This process is called ripening; The quality cheese also has a maturity period. It should be put in a specific environment for a longer period of time to eat. The same process is [maturing], but the degree of ripening is deeper. So, isn’t this the difference between raw cheese and cooked cheese? Raw cheese is equivalent to fresh cheese, there is no ripening process; cooked cheese is equivalent to soft cheese, hard cheese, and has a ripening process; this cooking is not cooked by various heating methods, but the bacteria and other ingredients are slowly drying. Change, humidity, texture, flavor... all aspects of the process of ripening slowly. Of course, everyone to read this shared kitchen friends, in fact, we are so entangled so much? It’s not about studying food papers. To put it bluntly, for us, it is straightforward - whether there is a cheese recipe, whether it will be done, and the taste is not authentic... Just get it done. If there is no specific cheese recipe, what do we mean by tangling these words? They are all empty. Generally, high-grade cheese is not made in the family, so look at this knowledge and let it go. It doesn't matter if it's not clear.
Making cheese with milk: the key process ~ sour curd (letting casein agglutination) (in conjunction with the following 'milk' chapter: knowledge of casein to solidify milk)
Making cheese with milk: the key process ~ rennet curd (letting casein agglutination) (in combination with the following 'milk' chapter: knowledge of casein making milk coagulate)
Main categories of cheese: fresh cheese, soft cheese, hard cheese
Fresh cheese: sour curd. Without the 'maturing' process, the milk is directly coagulated to remove some of the white color of the water, soft and moist texture, exudes fresh milk fragrance + a touch of sourness, very refreshing. High water content. (Supplement: Personally think that ~ fresh cheese and raw cheese are just the same thing, different called the law; that the same reason, cooked cheese is soft cheese and hard cheese
Fresh cheese: not equal to 'yoghurt'. Fresh cheese: type and quantity of fermentation bacteria ~ no specific requirements (how to be different in the specific process?? difference in the production process?) higher protein content (casein coagulation), calcium (mineral dissolved in water, lost with whey ) lower content.
Cheese is an exception: the surface is moldy, but it is edible.
Soft cheese: sour curd + rennet curd. Moisture content: fresh cheese > soft cheese > hard cheese and it should not be eaten directly after it is molded. Need to be placed in a constant temperature and humidity environment for a few weeks, called [mature period]
Soft cheese ~ can be listed after maturity
Hard cheese: rennet curd. The water content is lower, drier, and the texture is very hard.
Hard cheese: mature period of 2 to 3 months, even up to 1 to 2 years.
The basics of cheese: the production process, fresh milk pasteurization, fermentation of fermenting agent, acid-producing chymosin curd, agglutination, clot slicing, hot-drying drying, whey precipitation-separation Then cut into small pieces, add salt (dissolve protein + control bacterial activity), pour the curd into the mold, press dry, that is, cheese. ➡️Flip rinsing, refueling, wrap, warehousing, aging, packaging, storage, listing
The basic production process of cheese
Packing and storage of cheese: First, it must be oxygen-proof to prevent mildew from deteriorating. Keep moisture, maintain its flexible structure, and the cheese continues to ferment (or ripen?). After all, it will deteriorate, and it will be preserved as soon as possible.
Cheese type: extremely rich
Natural cheese VS Reconstituted cheese: - See [Ingredients] Natural cheese: Pasteurized milk (milk), various bacteria, salt... The ingredients are simple. Reconstituted cheese: cheese, milk powder, stabilizers, preservatives... The ingredients list is very long.
???? ???? ???? 乳 Whey Summary 1, 1, definition: 2, whey traits: light green, translucent, liquid. 3, the main raw materials: fresh milk (milk, goat milk) 4, the basic process: the production of by-products in the cheese. 5, the main ingredients: whey protein, lactose, phospholipids, vitamins, minerals, immunoglobulins ... (various soluble ingredients) 6, nutritional value & function: low fat, low cholesterol. 7, classification of whey: 8, production applications:
Whey Summary II. Fresh milk contains: 2.8% casein + 0.7% whey protein.
Whey Review III. Production Process Fresh milk: Most of the fat + casein cheese, the remaining by-product, ie whey
Whey Review IV. Ingredients and Nutritional Values Whey Protein: Good solubility, and contains higher “essential amino acids”, high nutritional value! It is the gold standard. Whey protein: The ratio of essential amino acids to non-essential amino acids is balanced. Amino acid composition ~ closest to breast milk ingredients, high nutrition - easy to digest. 'Branched chain amino acid' content ~ the highest in natural foods! Whey Protein: Contains a large class of ... proteins that interact with each other. Whey protein: contains many functional proteins (immunoglobulin, lactoferrin...)
Whey Review IV. Ingredients and Nutritional Value Whey: Low fat, low cholesterol!
Whey Review V. Nutritional Value of Whey Products & Wide Application in Foods
Whey Review V. Application of whey products: whey is a raw material for the production of “milk calcium” (mineral concentrate) containing a variety of minerals: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper...) and the proportion Similar to human bones.
Whey Review V. Application of whey products: in the field of yogurt and dairy products.
Whey Review V. Application of Whey Products: Application of Whey in 'Reconstituted Cheese'
Whey Review V. Application of Whey Products: Application of Whey in 'Milk-Based Sports Food' Sports Nutrition Food Ingredients
Whey Review VI. Classification of whey (depending on the production process): sweet whey, acid whey, salted whey.
Whey Summary Seven, whey products: also belong to the category of [dairy products]. Includes whey/whey powder/lactose.
Whey Review VII, whey products
???? ???? ???? ???? ???? Milk: Fresh milk 1, alias: 2, fresh milk traits: mixture / emulsion. 3, the main raw materials: animal fresh milk, the range is common (milk, milk milk - milk - water milk ... / goat milk, goat milk - Mianyang milk ...) 4, the basic process: 5, the main ingredients: milk as an example 90% Moisture, protein: soluble protein (is whey protein in whey?) / casein, suspended in water to form colloidal fat: lactose (dissolved in water), mineral (dissolved in water). 6, nutritional value: 7, fresh milk classification: pasteurized milk, room temperature milk. Whole milk, low fat milk, skim milk; additives (this is called 'modulating milk'), such as high calcium milk... 8,
Milk composition: Casein ~ accounts for more than 80% of the total protein. (The picture above - mentioned later: two important processes for making cheese from milk, sour curd, rennet curd... see the 'Cheese' knowledge section for details)
Classification of fresh milk II. According to the ingredients ???? ???? ???? ???? Low-fat milk, skim milk skim milk and whipping cream: Is it the same product of the “same production process” / Process different?
???? ???? ???? ???? Yorgut yogurt (fermented milk) category: 1, alias: yogurt, 2, yogurt traits: 3, the main raw materials: fresh milk (milk - milk milk - milk - water milk ... / goat milk - goat milk - sheep milk ... can be) 4, the basic process: add ~ beneficial bacteria (fermentation agent) 5, the main components: protein, lactic acid bacteria 6-1, nutritional value: retain all the advantages of milk, while at the same time to promote weaknesses, more suitable for the human body. 6-2, yogurt effect: 7, the classification of yogurt: solidified, agitated, fruity. 8. Storage of yogurt: refrigerated.
Yogurt making process: ➡️ ingredients fresh milk, sugar, stabilizer... What is modified starch? ➡️Preheating ➡️Homogeneous ➡️Sterilization ➡️ Cooling ➡️ Inoculation ➡️ Fermentation ➡️ Cooling ➡️ Stirring ➡️ Packaging ➡️ Post-cooking
Production process: preheating + homogenization. Modified starch: it can not be gelatinized during preheating, and the particle result is unchanged when homogenized
The production process: sterilization, at the same time, the modified starch ➡️ expands and gelatinizes to form a viscosity.
Production process: sterilization. Containers, tools... steam sterilization; raw milk... pasteurization [without destroying the original nutrients of milk] When sterilizing: Why degrease? ?
The production process: cooling + inoculation + fermentation modified starch: not degraded by the bacteria, maintaining stability. Casein: denatured and solidified, forming a three-dimensional network skeleton with water, curd.
Quality standard: The appearance of high-quality yogurt is milky white or slightly yellow, the surface is smooth, the curd is firm, the structure is fine, the texture is uniform, a small amount of whey is allowed to precipitate, no bubbles, moderate sweet and sour, no spicy taste and other odor. If there are bubbles in the yogurt or the drum is covered with a spicy taste or other odor, it means that the fresh milk has been contaminated by bacteria in the fermentation process and cannot be eaten. If the above conditions (producers) occur, it must not be used in production to prevent unnecessary losses. If it is overtime at a suitable temperature, there is little milk coagulation, whey separation, or even no milk coagulation, a large amount of suspended matter appears and odor appears, indicating that the strain is seriously degraded or the strain has been contaminated by bacteria, and should be stopped. If the strain is degraded, the degraded strain can be cultured on a slant medium, purified, rejuvenated, and then propagated to obtain an excellent production species.
Knowledge Extension 3: Other confusing... 'Milk products' ???? ???? ???? 炼 Condensed milk, ???? ???? ???? ???? Light milk (light condensed milk)